A generic term for a large family of cast ferrous alloys in which the carbon content exceeds solubility of carbon in austenite at the eutectic temperature. Most cast irons contain at least 2% carbon, plus silicon and sulfur, and may or may not contain other alloying elements. For the various forms gray cast iron, white cast iron, malleable cast iron and ductile cast iron, the word “cast” is often left out, resulting in “gray iron,” “white iron,” “malleable iron,” and “ductile iron,” respectively.
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